Iceland BASIC INFOMATION
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|64°57'50"N / 19°1'16"W|
|IS / ISL|
German widely spoken
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TYPE F SCHUKO PLUG
|Iceland banks list|
Iceland is the westernmost country in Europe. It is located in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean, close to the Arctic Circle. It covers an area of 103,000 square kilometers and occupies 8,000 square kilometers of glaciers, making it the second largest island in Europe. The coastline is about 4970 kilometers long, three-quarters of which are plateaus, one-eighth of which is covered by glaciers. Almost the entire country of Iceland is built on volcanic rocks. Most of the land cannot be cultivated. It is the country with the most hot springs in the world, so it is called the country of ice and fire, with many fountains, waterfalls, lakes and rapid rivers. Iceland has a cold temperate maritime climate, which is fickle, with aurora seen in autumn and early winter. |
Iceland, the full name of the Republic of Iceland, covers an area of 103,000 square kilometers. It is the westernmost country in Europe. It is located in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean, close to the Arctic Circle. It covers an area of 8,000 square kilometers and is the second largest island in Europe. The coastline is about 4970 kilometers long. Three-quarters of the whole territory is a plateau with an altitude of 400-800 meters, of which one-eighth is covered by glaciers. There are more than 100 volcanoes, including more than 20 active volcanoes. Warnadalshenuk volcano is the highest peak in the country, with an altitude of 2119 meters. Almost the entire country of Iceland is built on volcanic rocks. Most of the land cannot be cultivated. It has the most hot springs in the world, so it is called the country of ice and fire. There are many fountains, waterfalls, lakes and swift rivers. The largest river, Siyulsao, is 227 kilometers long. Iceland has a cold temperate oceanic climate, which is fickle. Due to the influence of the Gulf Stream, it is milder than other places at the same latitude. Summer sunshine is long, winter sunshine is extremely short. Aurora can be seen in autumn and early winter.
The country is divided into 23 provinces, 21 municipalities and 203 parishes.
At the end of the 8th century, Irish monks first moved to Iceland. In the second half of the 9th century, Norway began to immigrate to Iceland. The Parliament and the Federation of Iceland were established in 930 AD. In 1262, Iceland and Norway signed an agreement, and the Icelandic ministers belonged to Norway. In 1380 Bing and Norway were under Danish rule. Acquired internal autonomy in 1904. In 1918, Bingdan signed a federal law stating that Bing is a sovereign state, but foreign affairs are still controlled by Denmark. In 1940, Denmark was occupied by Germany and the relationship between Bingdan and Dan was interrupted. In the same year, the British troops stationed in the ice. The following year the American troops replaced the British troops in ice. On June 16, 1944, the Ice Council officially announced the dissolution of the Ice Dan Alliance, and the Republic of Iceland was established on the 17th. Joined the United Nations in 1946 and became a member of NATO in 1949.
National flag: It is rectangular with a ratio of length to width of 25:18. The flag ground is blue, and the red and white crosses divide the flag surface into four pieces: two equal blue squares and two equal blue rectangles. Blue represents the sea and white represents snow. The blue and white colors are the national colors of Iceland, reflecting the characteristics of Iceland's natural environment, that is, in the blue sky and ocean, "ice land"-Iceland emerges. Iceland has been a Norwegian territory since 1262 and was under Danish rule in the 14th century. Therefore, the cross pattern on the flag is derived from the Danish flag pattern, indicating the relationship between Iceland and Norway and Denmark in the history of Iceland.
Iceland has a population of 308,000 (2006). The vast majority are Icelandic and belong to the Germanic tribe. Icelandic is the official language, and English is the common language. 85.4% of residents believe in Christian Lutheranism.
Fishery is the backbone of the economy, and the industry is dominated by high energy consumption industries such as fish processing and aluminum smelting. Great dependence on foreign trade. Fishery, water conservancy and geothermal resources are abundant, and other natural resources are scarce. Products such as petroleum need to be imported. The annual hydropower generation capacity that can be developed is 64 billion kWh, and the annual geothermal power generation capacity can reach 7.2 billion kWh. The industrial base is weak. Except for light industries such as fishery products processing and knitting, the industries are dominated by high energy consumption industries such as aluminum smelting. Fishery is the pillar industry of Iceland's national economy. The main fish species are capelin, cod and herring. The vast majority of fishery products are exported, and fishery exports account for nearly 70% of total merchandise exports. Iceland’s fishing fleet is well-equipped and its fish processing technology is the world’s leader. It is located at a high latitude, with little sunshine, and only a few farms in the south produce 400 to 500 tons of crops per year. The arable land area is 1,000 square kilometers, accounting for 1% of the country's total area. Animal husbandry occupies a major position, and most of the agricultural land is used as fodder grassland. The corresponding wool spinning and tanning industries are relatively developed. Meat, milk, and eggs are more than self-sufficient, and grain, vegetables, and fruits are basically imported. The production of tomatoes and cucumbers grown in greenhouses can meet 70% of domestic consumption. The service industry occupies an important position in the national economy, including commerce, banking, insurance, and public services. Its output value accounts for about half of the GDP, and the number of employees accounts for more than two-thirds of the total labor force. Vigorously develop tourism since 1980. The main tourist spots are large glaciers, volcanic landforms, geothermal fountains and waterfalls. Iceland's per capita GDP is nearly 30,000 U.S. dollars, ranking among the best in the world. The freshness and purity of the air and water is the best in the world. The average life expectancy is 82.2 years for women and 78.1 years for men. The education level of the whole people is relatively high. Illiteracy was eliminated in Iceland more than 100 years ago. Iceland has become the country with the highest mobile phone penetration rate in the world in 1999.
Reykjavik: Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland, is located at the southeast corner of Fahsa Bay in western Iceland and on the north side of the Sertiana Peninsula. It is the largest port in Iceland The city faces the sea to the west, and is surrounded by mountains to the north and east. Affected by the warm North Atlantic current, the climate is mild, with an average temperature of 11°C in July, -1°C in January, and an average annual temperature of 4.3°C. The city has a population of 112,268 people (December 2001).
Reykjavík was founded in 874 and was formally established in 1786. In 1801, it was the seat of the Danish ruling authority. In 1904, Denmark recognized Iceland's internal autonomy, and Reykjavik became the seat of the autonomous government. In 1940, Nazi Germany occupied Denmark, and relations between Iceland and Denmark were interrupted. In June 1944, Iceland officially announced the dissolution of the Ice Dan Alliance and the establishment of the Republic of Iceland. Reykjavik became the capital.
Reykjavík is located near the Arctic Circle and has many hot springs and fumaroles. Legend has it that when people settled here in the 9th century AD, they saw the white smoke rising from the shore. Misunderstood the steaming water vapor in the hot springs as smoke, and called this place "Reykjavik", which means "smoking city" in Icelandic. Reykjavik vigorously develops geothermal resources, the sky is blue, and the city is clean and almost pollution-free, so it is known as a "smoke-free city". Whenever the morning sun rises or the setting sun sets, the peaks on both sides of the mountain show a delicate purple, and the sea water turns deep blue, making people feel like they are in a painting. Reykjavík’s buildings are well-proportioned in layout. There are no skyscrapers. The houses are small and exquisite. They are mostly painted in red, green and green. Under the sun, they are colorful and colorful. The main buildings such as the parliament hall and government buildings are built along the scenic Lake Tejoning in the city center. In summer, flocks of wild ducks swim around in the blue lake; in winter, children are skating and playing on the frozen lake, which is very interesting.
Reykjavik is the national political, commercial, industrial and cultural center and an important fishing port. All government ministries, parliaments, central banks and important commercial banks are located here. The city's industry accounts for about half of the country, mainly including fish processing, food processing, shipbuilding and textiles. Shipping occupies an important position in the city's economy, with passenger and cargo liners going all over the world. Keflavík Airport, 47 kilometers from Reykjavik, is Iceland’s international airport, with regular flights to the United States, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Germany and Luxembourg. The University of Iceland in Reykjavik is the only university in the country. It was established in 1911 and is a comprehensive university that includes literature, natural sciences, theology, law, economics and medicine.