Estonia COUNTRY CODE +372

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latitude / longitude
58°35'46"N / 25°1'25"E
Euro (EUR)
Estonian (official) 68.5%
Russian 29.6%
Ukrainian 0.6%
other 1.2%
unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)
National flag
EstoniaNational flag
banks list
Estonia banks list
45,226 KM2

Estonia Introduction

Estonia covers an area of ​​45,200 square kilometers. It is located on the east coast of the Baltic Sea. It borders the Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland to the northwest, Latvia to the southeast and Russia to the east. The coastline is 3794 kilometers long, the territory is low and flat with low hills in between, and the average elevation is 50 meters. There are many lakes and swamps. The largest lakes are Lake Chud and Lake Volz, which have a maritime climate. Estonians belong to the Ugric ethnic group in Finland, and Estonian is the official language.

Estonia, the full name of the Republic of Estonia, covers an area of ​​45,200 square kilometers. Located on the east coast of the Baltic Sea, it borders the Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland in the northwest, Latvia in the southeast and Russia in the east. The coastline is 3794 kilometers long. The terrain in the territory is low and flat with low hills in between, with an average elevation of 50 meters. Many lakes and swamps. The main rivers are Narva, Pärnu, and Emagi. The largest lakes are Lake Chud and Lake Wolz. It has a maritime climate, with the coldest winter in January and February, with an average temperature of -5°C, the hottest summer in July, with an average temperature of 16°C and an average annual rainfall of 500-700 mm.

The country is divided into 15 provinces, with a total of 254 large and small cities and towns. The names of the provinces are as follows: Hiiu, Harju, Rapla, Salier, Ryané-Viru, Iraq Da-Viru, Yalva, Villandi, Yegheva, Tartu, Viru, Varga, Belva, Parnu and Riane.

Estonian people have lived in present-day Estonia since ancient times. From the 10th to the 12th century AD, southeastern Estonia was merged into Kievan Rus. The Estonian nation was formed in the 12th to 13th centuries. In the early 13th century, Estonia was invaded and occupied by the Germanic Knights and the Danes. From the middle of the 13th century to the middle of the 16th century, Estonia was conquered by the German Crusaders and became part of Livonia. At the end of the 16th century, the territory of Estonia was divided between Sweden, Denmark and Poland. In the middle of the 17th century, Sweden occupied all of Estonia. From 1700 to 1721, Peter the Great fought a long-term "Northern War" with Sweden in order to seize the access to the Baltic Sea, and finally defeated Sweden, forcing Sweden to sign the "Nishtat Peace Treaty", seizing Estonia, and Estonia was merged into Russia.

Soviet power was established in November 1917. In February 1918, the entire territory of Estonia was occupied by German forces. Estonia proclaimed the establishment of a bourgeois democratic republic in May 1919. On February 24, 1920, Ai announced his separation from Soviet power. The secret protocol of the non-aggression treaty signed by the Soviet Union and Germany on August 23, 1938 stipulates that Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the spheres of influence of the Soviet Union. Estonia joined the Soviet Union in 1940. On June 22, 1941, Germany attacked the Soviet Union. Estonia was occupied by Germany for three years and became part of the Eastern Province of Germany. In November 1944, the Soviet Red Army liberated Estonia. On November 15, 1989, the Supreme Soviet of Estonia declared the declaration of Estonia's accession to the Soviet Union in 1940 invalid. On March 30, 1990, the Republic of Estonia was restored. On August 20, 1991, Love officially declared independence. On September 10 of the same year, Ai joined the CSCE and joined the United Nations on September 17.

National flag: A horizontal rectangle with a ratio of length to width of 11:7. The flag surface is composed of three parallel and equal horizontal rectangles connected together, which are blue, black and white from top to bottom. Blue symbolizes the country's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity; black symbolizes wealth, the country's fertile land and rich mineral resources; white symbolizes good luck, freedom, light and purity. The current national flag was officially used in 1918. Estonia became a republic of the former Soviet Union in 1940. Since 1945, a red flag with a five-pointed star, sickle and hammer pattern on the upper part and white, blue and red ripples on the lower part has been adopted as the national flag. In 1988, the original national flag was restored, that is, the current national flag.

1.361 million in Estonia (at the end of 2006). Among them, the urban population accounted for 65.5% and the rural population accounted for 34.5%. The average life expectancy of men is 64.4 years and that of women is 76.6 years. The main ethnic groups are Estonian 67.9%, Russian 25.6%, Ukrainian 2.1% and Belarusian. The official language is Estonian. English and Russian are also widely used. The main religions are Protestant Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox and Catholicism.

Estonia is more developed in industry and agriculture. Natural resources are scarce. The forest area is 1.8146 million hectares, accounting for 43% of the total area of ​​the territory. The main minerals include oil shale (reserves of about 6 billion tons), phosphate rock (reserves of about 4 billion tons), limestone, etc. The main industrial sectors include machinery manufacturing, wood processing, building materials, electronics, textiles and food processing industries. Agriculture is dominated by animal husbandry, which mainly raises dairy cows, beef cattle and pigs; the main crops are: wheat, rye, potatoes, vegetables, corn, flax and forage crops. Pillar industries such as tourism, transit transportation and service industries continued to grow.

Tallinn: Tallinn, the capital of the Republic of Estonia (Tallinn), is located between the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Copley on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea in northwestern Ireland. It used to connect Central and Eastern Europe with Southern and Northern Europe. It is known as the "Crossroads of Europe" and is an important commercial port, industrial center and tourist attraction on the Baltic Sea coast. The coastline stretches for 45 kilometers. It has an area of ​​158.3 square kilometers and a population of 404,000 (March 2000). The climate is obviously affected by the ocean, with cool and little rain in spring, warm and humid summer and autumn, cold and snowy winter, with an average annual temperature of 4.7°C.

Tallinn is surrounded by water on three sides and has beautiful and simple scenery. It is the only city in Northern Europe that maintains its medieval appearance and style. The city is divided into two parts: the old city and the new city.

Tallinn is an important commercial port, fishing port and industrial center of Estonia. The port throughput ranks second among Baltic ports, second only to Ventspils in Latvia (the largest non-freezing port on the Baltic Sea coast) . In order to win the re-export of Russian oil from Tallinn, the Estonian government formulated a 2005 strategic plan to consolidate Tallinn’s status as a transit corridor for Russia.

Industry mainly includes shipbuilding, machinery manufacturing, metal processing, chemistry, papermaking, textiles and food processing. It is also the technological and cultural center of Estonia. The city has the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Industrial Academy, Academy of Fine Arts, Normal Academy and Music Academy, as well as many museums and theaters.