Germany BASIC INFOMATION
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Germany is located in central Europe, with Poland and the Czech Republic in the east, Austria and Switzerland in the south, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France in the west, and Denmark in the north and the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. It is the country with the largest number of neighbors in Europe, with an area of approximately 357,100 square meters. Kilometers. The terrain is low in the north and high in the south. It can be divided into four terrain areas: the North German Plain, with an average elevation of less than 100 meters, the Mid-German Mountains, consisting of east-west high blocks, and the Rhine Fault Valley in the southwest, lined by mountains and valleys. The walls are steep, with the Bavarian plateau and Alps in the south. |
Germany is located in central Europe, with Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France to the west, and Denmark to the north. It is the country with the most neighbors in Europe. The area is 357020.22 square kilometers (December 1999). The terrain is low in the north and high in the south. It can be divided into four terrain areas: the North German Plain; the Mid-German Mountains; the Rhine Fracture Valley in the southwest; the Bavarian Plateau and the Alps in the south. The Zugspitze, the main peak of the Bayern Alps, is 2963 meters above sea level. The highest peak in the country. The main rivers are the Rhine, Elbe, Oder, Danube and so on. The maritime climate in northwestern Germany is more pronounced, with a gradual transition to a continental climate to the east and south. The average temperature is between 14～19℃ in July and -5～1℃ in January. The annual precipitation is 500-1000 mm, and the mountainous area has more.
Germany is divided into three levels: federal, state, and regional, with 16 states and 14,808 regions. The names of the 16 states are: Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia Lun, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein and Thuringia. Among them, Berlin, Bremen and Hamburg are cities and states.
The Germanic people lived in Germany today. Tribes gradually formed in the 2-3 centuries AD. The early feudal state of Germany was formed in the 10th century. Towards feudal separatism in the mid-13th century. At the beginning of the 18th century, Austria and Prussia rose to form the German Confederation according to the Vienna Conference in 1815, and the unified German Empire was established in 1871. The empire provoked the First World War in 1914, and collapsed in 1918 when it was defeated. In February 1919, Germany established the Weimar Republic. Hitler came to power in 1933 to implement a dictatorship. Germany launched World War II in 1939, and Germany surrendered on May 8, 1945.
After the war, according to the Yalta Agreement and the Potsdam Agreement, Germany was occupied by the United States, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union, and the four countries formed the Allied Control Committee to take over the highest power of Germany. The city of Berlin is also divided into 4 occupation zones. In June 1948, the occupied territories of the United States, Britain, and France merged. On May 23 of the following year, the merged Western Occupied Territory established the Federal Republic of Germany. On October 7th of the same year, the German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet-occupied area in the east. Since then, Germany has officially split into two sovereign states. On October 3, 1990, the GDR officially joined the Federal Republic of Germany. The constitution, the People's Chamber, and the government of the GDR were automatically cancelled. The original 14 prefectures were changed to 5 states in order to adapt to the Federal German establishment. They were merged into the Federal Republic of Germany, and the two Germanys that had been divided for more than 40 years were reunified.
National flag: It is a horizontal rectangle with a ratio of length to width of 5:3. From top to bottom, it is formed by connecting three parallel and equal horizontal rectangles of black, red, and yellow. There are different opinions on the origin of the tricolor flag. It can be traced back to the ancient Roman Empire in the first century AD. Later in the German Peasant War in the 16th century and the German bourgeois democratic revolution in the 17th century, the tricolor flag representing the republic was also flying on the German land. . After the fall of the German Empire in 1918, the Weimar Republic also adopted the black, red, and yellow flag as its national flag. In September 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany was established and still adopted the tricolor flag of the Weimar Republic; the German Democratic Republic was established in October of the same year also adopted the tricolor flag, but the national emblem including hammer, gauge, wheat ear, etc. was added in the center of the flag. Pattern to show the difference. On October 3, 1990, the reunified Germany still used the flag of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Germany has a population of 82.31 million (December 31, 2006). Mainly Germans, with a small number of Danes, Sorbian, Frisian and Gypsies. There are 7.289 million foreigners, accounting for 8.8% of the total population. General German. About 53 million people believe in Christianity, of which 26 million believe in Roman Catholicism, 26 million believe in Protestant Christianity, and 900,000 believe in Eastern Orthodox Church.
Germany is a highly developed industrial country. In 2006, its gross national product was US$2,858.234 billion, with a per capita value of US$34679. Its economic strength ranks first in Europe, and it is second only to the United States and Japan in the world. Three major economic powers. Germany is a major exporter of commodities. Half of its industrial products are sold abroad, and its export value now ranks second in the world. The main trading partners are Western industrial countries. Germany is poor in natural resources. In addition to rich reserves of hard coal, lignite and salt, it relies heavily on imports in terms of raw material supply and energy, and 2/3 of primary energy needs to be imported. German industry is dominated by heavy industries, with automobiles, machinery manufacturing, chemicals, and electrics accounting for more than 40% of the total industrial output value. Precision instruments, optics, and aviation and aerospace industries are also very developed. Tourism and transportation are well developed. Germany is a big beer producing country, its beer production ranks among the world's top, and the Oktoberfest is world-famous. The Euro (EURO) is currently the legal tender of Germany.
Germany has made outstanding achievements in culture and art. Famous figures such as Goethe, Beethoven, Hegel, Marx and Engels have emerged in history. There are many places of interest in Germany, the representative ones are: Brandenburg Gate, Cologne Cathedral, etc.
Brandenburg Gate (Brandenburg Gate) is located at the intersection of Linden Street and June 17th Street in the center of Berlin. It is a famous tourist attraction in downtown Berlin and a symbol of German unity. Sans Souci Palace (Sans Souci Palace) is located in the northern suburbs of Potsdam, the capital of Brandenburg in the eastern part of the Federal Republic of Germany. The name of the palace is taken from the original meaning of "Worry-free" in French.
Sanssouci Palace and the surrounding gardens were built during the period of King Frederick II of Prussia (1745-1757), following the architectural style of the Palace of Versailles in France. The entire garden covers an area of 290 hectares and is located on a sand dune, so it is also known as the "palace on the sand dune". All construction works of Sanssouci Palace lasted for about 50 years, which is the essence of German architectural art.
Cologne Cathedral is the most perfect Gothic church in the world, located on the Rhine River in the center of Cologne, Germany. The east-west length is 144.55 meters, the north-south width is 86.25 meters, the hall is 43.35 meters high, and the top pillar is 109 meters high. In the center are two double spires connected to the door wall. The two 157.38 meter spires are like two sharp swords. Straight into the sky. The entire building is made of polished stones, covering an area of 8,000 square meters, with a construction area of about 6,000 square meters. There are countless small spires around the cathedral. The entire cathedral is black, which is particularly eye-catching among all the buildings in the city.
Berlin: Berlin, as the capital after the reunification of Germany and Germany in October 1990, is both young and old. It is located in the heart of Europe and is the meeting point of East and West. The city covers an area of 883 square kilometers, of which parks, forests, lakes and rivers account for about a quarter of the city's total area. The entire city is surrounded by forests and grasslands, like a big green island. The population is about 3.39 million. Berlin is a famous ancient European capital and was founded in 1237. After Bismarck unified Germany in 1871, Dublin was decided. On October 3, 1990, the two Germanys were unified, and East and West Berlin merged into one city again.
Berlin is a famous tourist destination in Europe, where there are many classical and modern buildings. Classical and modern architectural art complement each other and complement each other, reflecting the characteristics of German architectural art. The conference hall completed in 1957 is one of the representative works of modern architecture. To the north of it, the former Empire State Capitol has been partially restored. The Symphony Hall built in 1963 and the National Modern Art Gallery designed by the famous architect Ludwig are novel in style. On both sides of the old Kaiser Wilhelm I Memorial Hall, there is a new octagonal church and a bell tower. There is also a 20-story European Center building with steel and glass structure nearby. The 1.6-kilometer-long "Street under the Bodhi Tree" is a famous boulevard in Europe. It was built by Frederick II. The street is 60 meters wide and lined with trees on both sides. At the west end of the street is the Brandenburg Gate built in the style of the Acropolis gate in ancient Greece. The majestic Brandenburg Gate is a symbol of Berlin. After more than 200 years of vicissitudes, it can be called a witness of modern German history.
Berlin is also the largest external window of German culture. Berlin has 3 opera houses, 150 theaters and theaters, 170 museums, 300 galleries, 130 cinemas and 400 open-air theaters. The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra is world-renowned. The historic Humboldt University and the Free University of Berlin are both world-renowned institutions.
Berlin is also an international transportation hub. In 1838, the Berlin-Bostan Railway was opened to traffic, which opened the prelude to the European railway era. In 1881, the world's first tram was put into use in Berlin. The Berlin Metro was built in 1897, with a total length of 75 kilometers before the war and 92 stations, making it one of the most complete subway systems in Europe. Berlin now has 3 main airports, 3 international railway stations, 5170 kilometers of roads, and 2,387 kilometers of public transportation.
Munich: Located at the northern foot of the Alps, Munich is a beautiful mountain city surrounded by mountains and rivers. It is also the most magnificent court cultural center in Germany. As the third largest city in Germany with 1.25 million inhabitants, Munich has always maintained its urban style consisting of many church towers and other ancient buildings. Munich is a culturally famous city. In addition to having a huge national library, 43 theaters and a university with more than 80,000 students, there are more than four in Munich, including museums, park fountains, sculptures and beer. many.
As a famous historical and cultural city, Munich has many Baroque and Gothic buildings. They are typical representatives of the European Renaissance. Various sculptures abound in the city and are vivid.
The Oktoberfest in October every year is the world’s largest folk festival. More than five million guests from all over the world will come here to celebrate this grand festival. The Oktoberfest in Munich originated from a series of celebrations held in 1810 to celebrate the centuries between the Crown Prince of Bavaria and Princess Dairis of Saxony-Hildenhausen. For more than a hundred years, every September and October, there was a "beer atmosphere" on the streets of the city. There were many beer food stalls on the streets. People sat on long wooden chairs and held large ceramic mugs that could hold one liter of beer. Drink as much as you want, the whole city is full of jubilation, millions of liters of beer and hundreds of thousands of bananas have been swept away. The "beer belly" of the people of Munich also shows people that they can drink well.
Frankfurt: Frankfurt is located on the banks of the Main River. Frankfurt is Germany's financial center, exposition city and air gateway and transportation hub to the world. Compared with other cities in Germany, Frankfurt is more cosmopolitan. As one of the world's financial centers, the skyscrapers in Frankfurt's banking district are lined up in rows, which is dizzying. More than 350 banks and branches are located in the streets of Frankfurt. "Deutsche Bank" is located in the center of Frankfurt. The central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany is like a keen central nerve, affecting the entire German economy. The headquarters of the European Bank and the German Stock Exchange are located in Frankfurt. For this reason, the city of Frankfurt is called "Manhattan on the Main".
Frankfurt is not only a financial center in the world, it is also a famous exposition city with 800 years of history. About 15 large-scale international fairs are held every year, such as the International Consumer Goods Fair held in spring and summer each year; the biennial international "sanitation, heating, air-conditioning" professional fair, etc.
Frankfurt’s Rhein-Main Airport is Europe’s second largest airport and Germany’s gateway to the world. It carries 18 million passengers every year. The planes taking off here fly to 192 cities all over the world, and there are 260 routes that closely link Frankfurt with the world.
Frankfurt is not only the economic center of Germany, but also a cultural city. This is the hometown of Goethe, a world writer, and his former residence is in the city center. There are 17 museums and many places of interest in Frankfurt. The remains of the ancient Romans, the palm tree park, the Heninger Tower, the Eustinus Church, and the ancient opera are all worth seeing.