How to dial Syria









latitude / longitude
34°48'53"N / 39°3'21"E
Pound (SYP)
Arabic (official)
Circassian (widely understood); French
English (somewhat understood)

National flag
SyriaNational flag
banks list
Syria banks list
185,180 KM2

Syria Introduction

Syria covers an area of ​​approximately 185,000 square kilometers, located in the western part of the Asian continent and on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. It borders Turkey to the north, Iraq to the southeast, Jordan to the south, Lebanon and Palestine to the southwest, and Cyprus to the west across the sea. Most of the territory is a plateau sloping from northwest to southeast. It is divided into four zones: western mountains and intermountain valleys, Mediterranean coastal plains, inland plains and southeastern Syrian deserts. The coastal and northern regions have a subtropical Mediterranean climate, and the southern regions have a tropical desert climate.

Syria, the full name of the Syrian Arab Republic, covers an area of ​​185,180 square kilometers (including the Golan Heights). Located in the west of the Asian continent, on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It borders Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, Lebanon and Palestine to the southwest, and Cyprus to the west across the Mediterranean Sea. The coastline is 183 kilometers long. Most of the territory is a plateau sloping from northwest to southeast. It is mainly divided into four zones: western mountains and mountain valleys; Mediterranean coastal plains; inland plains; southeast Syrian desert. Sheikh Mountain in the southwest is the highest peak in the country. The Euphrates River flows into the Persian Gulf through Iraq through the east, and the Assi River flows through the west into the Mediterranean Sea through Turkey. The coastal and northern regions belong to the subtropical Mediterranean climate, and the southern regions belong to the tropical desert climate. The four seasons are distinct, the desert area receives less rainfall in winter, and the summer is dry and hot.

The country is divided into 14 provinces and cities: Rural Damascus, Homs, Hama, Latakia, Idlib, Tartus, Raqqa , Deir ez-Zor, Hassek, Dar'a, Suwayda, Kuneitra, Aleppo and Damascus.

Syria has a history of more than four thousand years. Primitive city-states existed in 3000 BC. Conquered by the Assyrian Empire in the 8th century BC. In 333 BC, the Macedonian army invaded Syria. It was occupied by the ancient Romans in 64 BC. Incorporated into the territory of the Arab Empire at the end of the 7th century. The European Crusaders invaded in the 11th century. From the end of the 13th century, it was ruled by the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt. It was annexed by the Ottoman Empire for 400 years from the beginning of the 16th century. In April 1920, it was reduced to a French mandate. At the beginning of World War II, Britain and France's "Free French Army" marched into Syria together. On September 27, 1941, the commander-in-chief of the "Free French Army", General Jadro declared the independence of Syria in the name of the allies. Syria established its own government in August 1943. In April 1946, the French and British troops were forced to withdraw. Syria gained full independence and established the Syrian Arab Republic. On February 1, 1958, Syria and Egypt merged into the United Arab Republic. On September 28, 1961, Syria separated from the Arab League and re-established the Syrian Arab Republic.

National flag: It is rectangular with a ratio of length to width of 3:2. The flag surface is composed of three parallel horizontal rectangles of red, white and black connected from top to bottom. In the white part, there are two green five-pointed stars of the same size. Red symbolizes bravery, white symbolizes purity and tolerance, black is a symbol of Muhammad's victory, green is the favorite color of Muhammad's descendants, and the five-pointed star symbolizes the Arab revolution.

Syria has a population of 19.5 million (2006). Among them, Arabs account for more than 80%, as well as Kurds, Armenians, Turkmen, etc. Arabic is the national language, and English and French are commonly used. 85% of the residents believe in Islam and 14% believe in Christianity. Among them, Sunni Islam accounts for 80% (approximately 68% of the national population), Shiites account for 20%, and Alawites account for 75% of the Shiites (approximately 11.5% of the national population).

Syria has superior natural conditions and rich mineral resources, mainly petroleum, phosphate, natural gas, rock salt, asphalt, etc. Agriculture occupies an important position in the national economy and is one of the five food exporters in the Arab world. The industrial foundation is weak, the state-owned economy is dominant, and modern industry has only a few decades of history. Existing industries are divided into mining industry, processing industry and hydropower industry. The mining industry includes oil, natural gas, phosphate, and marble. The processing industries mainly include textiles, food, leather, chemicals, cement, tobacco, etc. Syria has famous archaeological sites and summer resorts. These tourism resources attract a large number of tourists every year.

Syria is a corridor for some countries in the Middle East to enter and exit the Mediterranean. Land, sea and air transportation are relatively developed. Located 245 kilometers northeast of Damascus, there is the ruins of Taidemuer City known as the "Bride in the Desert". It was an important town that connected China and West Asia, European commercial roads and the ancient Silk Road in the 2nd to 3rd centuries AD.

Damascus: The world-famous ancient city, Damascus, the capital of Syria, was known as the "city in heaven" in ancient times. Located on the right bank of the Balada River in southwestern Syria. The urban area is built on the slope of Kexin Mountain, covering an area of ​​about 100 square kilometers. It was built around 2000 BC. In 661 AD, the Umayyad Arab dynasty was established here. After 750, it belonged to the Abbasid dynasty and was ruled by the Ottomans for 4 centuries. The French colonialists ruled for more than 30 years before independence. Although Damascus has gone through many vicissitudes of life, it has gone through several ups and downs, but today it still deserves the title of "City of Historic Sites". The stone-built Kaisan Gate next to the ancient city was rebuilt in the 13th and 14th centuries. Legend has it that St. Paul, the apostle of Jesus Christ, entered Damascus through this gate. Later, when St. Paul was chased by the enemies of Christianity, he was put in a basket by the faithful and landed on the Kaisan Gate from the castle in Damascus, and escaped from Damascus. Later, St. Paul’s Church was built here to commemorate.

The famous street in the city-straight street, which runs from east to west, was the main street of the city during the rule of ancient Rome. The center of the city is the Martyrs Square, and a bronze statue of General Azim, the national general, is erected nearby. In the new urban area, there are modern government buildings, sports city, university city, museum, embassy district, hospital, bank, movie theater and theater. There are 250 mosques in the city, the most famous of which is the Umayyad Mosque, built in 705 AD and located in the middle of the old city. Its magnificent architecture is one of the most famous ancient mosques in the Islamic world.