Bulgaria COUNTRY CODE +359

How to dial Bulgaria









latitude / longitude
42°43'47"N / 25°29'30"E
Lev (BGN)
Bulgarian (official) 76.8%
Turkish 8.2%
Roma 3.8%
other 0.7%
unspecified 10.5% (2011 est.)
National flag
BulgariaNational flag
banks list
Bulgaria banks list
110,910 KM2

Bulgaria Introduction

Bulgaria has a total area of ​​approximately 111,000 square kilometers and is located in the southeast of the European Balkan Peninsula. It faces Romania across the Danube River to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. The coastline is 378 kilometers long. 70% of the entire territory is mountains and hills. The Balkan Mountains traverse the middle, with the vast Danube Plain to the north, and the Rhodope Mountains and the Maritsa Valley lowlands to the south. The north is a continental climate, and the south is a Mediterranean climate, with superior natural conditions and a forest coverage rate of about 30%.

Bulgaria, the full name of the Republic of Bulgaria, covers an area of ​​11,1001.9 square kilometers (including river boundary waters). Located in the southeast of the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. It is bordered by Romania in the north, Turkey and Greece in the south, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia) and Macedonia in the west, and the Black Sea in the east. The coastline is 378 kilometers long. 70% of the entire territory is mountainous and hilly. The Balkan Mountains traverse the central part, with the vast Danube Plain to the north, and the Rhodope Mountains and Maritsa Valley lowlands to the south. The main mountain range is the Rila mountain range (the main peak Musala is 2925 meters above sea level and is the highest peak in the Balkan Peninsula). The Danube and Maritsa are the main rivers. The north has a continental climate, and the south has a Mediterranean climate. The average temperature is January -2-2℃ and July 23-25℃. The average annual rainfall is 450 mm in plains and 1,300 mm in mountainous areas. The natural conditions are superior, with mountains, hills, plains and other terrains, lakes and rivers crisscrossing, and forest coverage is about 30%.

Bulgaria is divided into 28 regions and 254 townships.

The ancestors of the Bulgarians were the ancient Bulgarians who migrated from Central Asia and merged into the Byzantine Empire in 395 AD. In 681, under the leadership of Han Asbaruch, the Slavs, the ancient Bulgarians and the Thracians defeated the Byzantine army and established the Slavic Kingdom of Bulgaria in the Danube Valley (the first Kingdom of Bulgaria in history). In 1018 it was again occupied by Byzantium. In 1185 the Bulgarians revolted and established the Second Kingdom of Bulgaria. In 1396 it was occupied by the Turkish Ottoman Empire. After the end of the Russian-Turkish War in 1877, Bulgaria gained independence from Turkish rule and once achieved unification. However, Russia, exhausted by the war, could not withstand the pressure of the British, German, Austro-Hungarian and other Western powers. According to the "Berlin Treaty" signed on July 13, 1878, Bulgaria was divided into three: the northern The Principality of Bulgaria, Eastern Rumilia and Macedonia in the south. In 1885, Bulgaria again realized the unification of North and South. Bulgaria was defeated in both world wars. The fascist regime was overthrown in 1944 and the Fatherland Front government was established. The monarchy was abolished in September 1946, and the Bulgarian People’s Republic was announced on September 15 of the same year. The country was renamed the Republic of Bulgaria in 1990.

National flag: It is rectangular with a ratio of length to width of 5:3. It is composed of three parallel and equal horizontal rectangles, which are white, green, and red from top to bottom. White symbolizes the people's love for peace and freedom, green symbolizes agriculture and the country's main wealth, and red symbolizes the blood of warriors. White and red are the traditional colors of the ancient kingdom of Bohemia.

Bulgaria has a population of 7.72 million (as of the end of 2005). Bulgarians account for 85%, Turkish nationalities account for 10%, and the rest are gypsies. Bulgarian (a Slavic language family) is the official language and common language, and Turkish is the main minority language. Most of the residents believe in Orthodox Church, and a few believe in Islam.

Bulgaria is poor in natural resources. The main mineral deposits are coal, lead, zinc, copper, iron, uranium, manganese, chromium, mineral salts and a small amount of petroleum. The forest area is 3.88 million hectares, accounting for about 35% of the country's total area. Bao is an agricultural country in history, and its main agricultural products are grains, tobacco, and vegetables. It is especially famous for yogurt and wine brewing technology in agricultural product processing. The main industrial sectors include metallurgy, machinery manufacturing, chemicals, electrical and electronics, food and textiles. At the end of 1989, Baosteel gradually transitioned to a market economy, developed a variety of ownership economies including private ownership under equal conditions, and gave priority to the development of agriculture, light industry, tourism, and service industries. Foreign trade occupies an important position in the Bulgarian economy. The main imported products are energy, chemicals, electronics and other products, while the export products are mainly light industrial products, chemicals, food, machinery, and non-ferrous metals. The tourism industry is relatively developed.

Sofia: Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, is the national political, economic, and cultural center. It is located in central and western Bulgaria, in the Sofia Basin surrounded by mountains. The city straddles the Iskar River and its tributaries, with an area of ​​167 square kilometers and a population of nearly 1.2 million. Sofia was named Sedica and Sredtz in ancient times. It was finally named Sofia after the Saint Sofia Church in the 14th century. Sofia was designated the capital in 1879. Bulgaria declared independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1908, and Sofia became the independent Bulgarian capital.

Sofia is a charming tourist resort and a world-famous garden city. Its streets, squares, and residential areas are surrounded by greenery, and there are many boulevards, lawns and gardens in the urban area. Most of the buildings are white or light yellow, reflecting the colorful flowers and trees, making them very quiet and elegant. There are many flower shops and flower stalls on the streets. The citizens generally like to plant flowers and give flowers. The most popular are the enduring dianthus, tulips and red roses. From Sofia Square along the wide Russian boulevard paved with ceramic tiles to the Eagle Bridge, there are 4 beautiful gardens on the road less than one kilometer away.

During the occupation of Sofia by the Ottoman Empire, the city suffered a lot of damage. Among the ancient buildings, there are only two early Christian buildings-St. George’s Church built in the 2nd century AD and St. Sofia’s Church built in the early 4th century Save it. There are Dimitrov’s Mausoleum, Government Building, and National Gallery in the central square. Almost all streets branch out from the central square. Near the square are the Revolution Museum, Alexander Nevsky Church, etc. Next to the church is the tomb of the famous Bulgarian writer Vazov with a bust of him.