Latvia COUNTRY CODE +371

How to dial Latvia









latitude / longitude
56°52'32"N / 24°36'27"E
Euro (EUR)
Latvian (official) 56.3%
Russian 33.8%
other 0.6% (includes Polish
and Belarusian)
unspecified 9.4% (2011 est.)
National flag
LatviaNational flag
banks list
Latvia banks list
64,589 KM2

Latvia Introduction

Latvia covers an area of ​​64,589 square kilometers. It is located in the western part of the Eastern European Plain, bordering the Baltic Sea to the west, and the Gulf of Riga inland. It borders Estonia to the north, Russia to the east, Lithuania to the south, and Belarus to the southeast. The terrain is low and flat, with hills in the east and west, and the total length of the border is 1,841 kilometers. The average elevation is 87 meters, the landform is hills and plains, dominated by podzol, about half of which is arable land, and the forest coverage rate is 44%. The climate is in the middle of the transition from a maritime climate to a continental climate. The humidity is high, and about half of the year is rain and snow.

Latvia, the full name of the Republic of Latvia, has an area of ​​64,589 square kilometers, including 62,046 square kilometers of land and 2,543 square kilometers of internal water. Located in the western part of the Eastern European Plain, facing the Baltic Sea (307 kilometers long coastline) to the west, the Gulf of Riga goes deep inland. It borders Estonia to the north, Russia to the east, Lithuania to the south, and Belarus to the southeast. The terrain is low and flat, with hills in the east and west. The total length of the border is 1,841 kilometers, of which the coastline is 496 kilometers. With an average elevation of 87 meters, the landform is hills and plains, dominated by podzol, and about half of it is arable land. The forest coverage rate is 44% and there are 14 thousand wild species. There are 14,000 rivers, of which 777 are more than 10 kilometers in length. The main rivers are Daugava and Gaoya. There are many lakes and swamps in the territory. There are 140 lakes with an area of ​​more than 1 square kilometer, and the larger lakes are Lake Lubans, Lake Lazna, Lake Egulie and Lake Burteneks. The climate is an intermediate type of transition from oceanic climate to continental climate. In summer, the average temperature during the day is 23℃, the average temperature at night is 11℃, the average temperature in coastal areas in winter is minus 2-3℃, and in non-coastal areas it is minus 6-7℃. The average annual precipitation is 633 mm. The humidity is high, and about half of the year is rain and snow.

The country is divided into 26 districts and 7 district-level cities, with 70 cities and 490 villages. The main big cities are: Riga, Daugavapils, Liepaja, Jargava, Jurmala, Ventspils, Rezekne.

In 9000 BC, the earliest human activity occurred in Latvia, belonging to the Europa race. Class society emerged in the 5th century. The early feudal duchy was established in the 10th-13th century. From the end of the 12th century to 1562, it was invaded by Germanic Crusades and later belonged to the Delivonia regime. From 1583 to 1710, it was partitioned by Sweden and Poland-Lithuania. The Latvian nation was formed in the early 17th century. From 1710 to 1795, it was occupied by Tsarist Russia. From 1795 to 1918, the eastern and western parts of Latin America were divided by Russia and Germany respectively. Independence was declared on November 18, 1918. The establishment of the Bourgeois Democratic Republic was announced on February 16, 1922. In June 1940, the Soviet army stationed in Lat and based on the Molotov-Ribbentrop secret supplementary protocol and established Soviet power. On July 21 of the same year, the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic was established, and it was incorporated into the Soviet Union on August 5. . In the summer of 1941, Hitler attacked the Soviet Union and occupied Latvia. From 1944 to May 1945, the Soviet Red Army liberated the entire territory of Latvia and Latvia was reintegrated into the Soviet Union. On February 15, 1990, Latvia passed a declaration on restoring national independence, and on February 27, it restored its previous flag, national emblem and national anthem. On May 4, the Supreme Soviet of Latvia formally adopted the "Declaration of Independence" and changed its name to the Republic of Tvia. On August 22, 1991, the Supreme Soviet of Latvia announced that the Republic of Latvia had restored its independence. On September 6 of the same year, the Soviet State Council recognized its independence, and on September 17, Latvia joined the United Nations.

National flag: It is a horizontal rectangle with a ratio of length to width of about 2:1. From top to bottom, it is composed of three parallel horizontal bars of red, white and red. As early as the 13th century, the Latga people living in Latvia used red, white and red flags. This national flag was de facto legalized in 1918, and the colors and proportions of the national flag were determined in 1922. Latvia became a republic of the former Soviet Union in 1940. The national flag at that time was a white and blue water ripple pattern on the lower part of the former Soviet Union flag. Latvia declared independence in 1990, and the red, white, and red flags, which symbolize the national unity of Latvia, were used as the national flag.

Latvia has a population of 2,281,300 (December 2006). Latvians accounted for 58.5%, Russians 29%, Belarusians 3.9%, Ukrainians 2.6%, Polish 2.5%, and Lithuanians 1.4%. In addition, there are ethnic groups such as Jewish, Gypsy, and Estonian. The official language is Latvian, and Russian is commonly used. Mainly believe in Roman Catholicism, Protestant Lutheran and Eastern Orthodox.

Latvia has a good economic foundation. It is an economically developed country on the Baltic Sea coast. It is one of the most developed and prosperous regions in the former Soviet Union. Among the three Baltic countries, its industry Ranked first, agriculture ranked second. In addition to forest resources (2.9 million hectares), there are also a small amount of construction materials such as peat, limestone, gypsum, and dolomite. The main industrial sectors include food processing, textiles, wood processing, chemicals, machinery manufacturing, and ship repairs. Agriculture includes planting, fishery, animal husbandry and other industries, and agriculture and animal husbandry are very developed. Cultivated land accounts for 39% of the total area, reaching 2.5 million hectares. The crops are mainly planted grains, flax, sugar beets, barley, rye, and potatoes. Half of the arable land is used to grow fodder crops. Animal husbandry is dominant in agriculture, mainly raising dairy cows and pigs. Beekeeping is very common. Agriculture includes industries such as planting, fish, and animal husbandry. 30% of the country’s population lives in rural areas, of which agricultural population accounts for 15% of the country’s total population.

Riga: Riga, the capital of Latvia, is the largest hub city and summer resort in the Baltic Sea region, as well as a world-famous port. In ancient times, the Riga River passed through here, and the city got its name. Riga is located in the center of the Baltic States, bordering the Gulf of Riga. The city spans both banks of the Daugava River and is 15 kilometers north of the Baltic Sea. The geographical location of Riga is very important. It is located at the intersection of western and eastern Europe, Russia and Scandinavia. Its port has important strategic significance and is known as the "beating heart of the Baltic Sea." Because Riga is bordered by a river and a lake, it is also known as three rivers and one lake. The three rivers refer to the Daugava River, the Lieruba River, and the city canal, and the other lake refers to the Jishi Lake. It covers an area of ​​307 square kilometers. The average temperature in January is -4.9℃, and the average temperature in July is 16.9℃. The population is over 740,000, accounting for one third of the national population.

The British writer Graham Green, who visited Riga in the 1930s, wrote the phrase "Riga, Paris in the North". On both sides of the sidewalk, there are modern cafes and restaurants, and the city's commercial and entertainment activities are booming. The Radisson Slavyanska Pavilion is located on the Daugava River and has the most complete conference facilities in the country, overlooking the old city. The food in Riga is similar to other Nordic countries, greasy and rich, but it also has its own specialties such as creamy barley soup and milk fish soup, pies with bacon and onions, and brown bread pudding. The locals like to drink beer.

Industry includes shipbuilding, electrical appliances, machinery, vehicles, glass, textiles, consumer goods and food processing industries. The city has convenient transportation, with an international airport, a cargo port, a passenger port, and communication facilities extending in all directions. During the Soviet period, Riga was an important port with a throughput of more than 8 million tons.