Switzerland BASIC INFOMATION
|LOCAL TIME||YOUR TIME|
|LOCAL TIME ZONE||TIMEZONE DIFFERENCE|
|UTC/GMT +1 HOURS|
|latitude / longitude|
|46°48'55"N / 8°13'28"E|
|CH / CHE|
|German (official) 64.9%|
French (official) 22.6%
Italian (official) 8.3%
Romansch (official) 0.5%
|Switzerland banks list|
Switzerland covers an area of 41,284 square kilometers. It is a landlocked country in central Europe. It borders Austria and Liechtenstein to the east, Italy to the south, France to the west, and Germany to the north. The country has a high terrain, divided into three natural terrain areas, the Jura Mountains in the northwest, the Alps in the south and the Swiss plateau in the middle. The average elevation is about 1,350 meters and there are many lakes, totaling 1,484. The land belongs to the northern temperate zone, which is affected by the alternation of oceanic climate and continental climate, and the climate changes greatly. |
Switzerland, the full name of the Swiss Confederation, covers an area of 41284 square kilometers. It is a landlocked country located in central Europe, with Austria and Liechtenstein to the east, Italy to the south, France to the west, and Germany to the north. The terrain of the country is high and steep, divided into three natural terrain areas: the Jura Mountains in the northwest, the Alps in the south and the Swiss plateau in the middle, with an average elevation of about 1,350 meters. The main rivers are the Rhine and Rhone. There are many lakes, there are 1484, the largest Lake Geneva (Lake Geneva) covers an area of about 581 square kilometers. The land belongs to the northern temperate zone, which is affected by the alternation of oceanic climate and continental climate, and the climate changes greatly.
In the 3rd century AD, the Alemanni (Germanic people) moved to the east and north of Switzerland, and the Burgundians moved to the west and established the first Burgundian dynasty. It was ruled by the Holy Roman Empire in the 11th century. In 1648, he got rid of the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, declared independence and pursued a policy of neutrality. In 1798, Napoleon I invaded Switzerland and changed it to the "Helvedic Republic". In 1803, Switzerland restored the Confederation. In 1815, the Vienna Conference confirmed Switzerland as a permanent neutral country. In 1848, Switzerland formulated a new constitution and established the Federal Council, which has since become a unified federal state. In both world wars, Switzerland remained neutral. Switzerland has been an observer country of the United Nations since 1948. In the referendum held in March 2002, 54.6% of Swiss voters and 12 of the 23 Swiss cantons agreed to join the United Nations. On September 10, 2002, the 57th United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution officially admitting the Swiss Confederation as a new member of the United Nations.
National flag: It is square. The flag is red, with a white cross in the middle. There are different opinions on the origin of the Swiss flag pattern, among which there are four representative ones. By 1848, Switzerland had formulated a new federal constitution, officially stipulating that the red and white cross flag was the flag of the Swiss Confederation. White symbolizes peace, justice and light, and red symbolizes the victory, happiness and enthusiasm of the people; the entire set of patterns of the national flag symbolize the unity of the country. This national flag was modified in 1889, changing the original red and white cross rectangle to a square, symbolizing the country’s diplomatic policy of justice and neutrality.
Switzerland has a population of 7,507,300, of which more than 20% are foreigners. Four languages including German, French, Italian and Latin Romance are all official languages. Among the residents, about 63.7% speak German, 20.4% French, 6.5% Italian, 0.5% Latin Romance, and 8.9% of other languages. Residents who believe in Catholicism accounted for 41.8%, Protestants 35.3%, other religions 11.8%, and non-believers accounted for 11.1%.
Switzerland is an extremely developed and modern country. In 2006, its GDP was 386.835 billion U.S. dollars, with a per capita value of 51,441 U.S. dollars, ranking second in the world.
Industry is the mainstay of the Swiss national economy, and industrial output accounts for about 50% of the GDP. The main industrial sectors in Switzerland include: watches, machinery, chemistry, food and other sectors. Switzerland is known as the "Kingdom of Watches and Clocks". For more than 400 years since Geneva produced watches in 1587, it has maintained its leading position in the world watch industry. In recent years, Swiss watch exports have increased substantially. The machinery manufacturing industry mainly produces textile machinery and power generation equipment. Machine tools, precision instruments, meters, transportation machinery, agricultural machinery, chemical machinery, food machinery, and printing machinery are also very important. In recent years, the production of printers, computers, cameras, and movie cameras has developed rapidly. The products of the food industry are mainly for domestic needs, but cheese, chocolate, instant coffee and concentrated food are also well-known in the world. The chemical industry is also an important pillar of Swiss industry. At present, pharmaceuticals account for about 2/5 of the output value of the chemical industry, and the status of dyes, pesticides, balsams, and flavors in the international market is also very important.
Agricultural output value accounts for about 4% of Switzerland’s GDP, and agricultural employment accounts for about 6.6% of the country’s total employment. For a long time, the Swiss government has attached great importance to the development of agricultural production. Long-term implementation of subsidy policies for agriculture, such as granting subsidies, providing special subsidies for mountainous areas, and providing price subsidies for major agricultural products; restricting and reducing the import of vegetables and fruits; providing interest-free loans to farmers; supporting agricultural mechanization and specialization; strengthening Agricultural scientific research and technical training.
Switzerland has a well-developed tourism industry and is expected to be further developed. Switzerland is the world's financial center, and the banking and insurance industries are the largest sectors. The tourism industry has maintained a long-term stable and strong development momentum, providing a market for the development of tourism-related industries.
Bern: Bern means "bear" in German. It is the capital of Switzerland and the capital of the Canton of Bern, located in the central west of Switzerland. The Aare River divides the city into two halves, the Old City on the West Bank and the New City on the East Bank. Seven wide bridges across the Aare River connect the Old City and the New City. Bern has a mild and humid climate, warm in winter and cool in summer.
Bern is a famous city with 800 years of history. It was a military post when the city was founded in 1191. Became a free city in 1218. It gained independence from Germany in 1339 and joined the Swiss Confederation as an independent canton in 1353. It became the capital of the Swiss Confederation in 1848.
The old city of Berne still retains its medieval architecture intact and has been included in the "World Cultural Heritage List" by UNESCO. In the city, fountains of various forms, walkways with arcades, and towering towers are all-seeing and fascinating. The square in front of the town hall is the best-preserved medieval square. Among the many monuments in Bern, the bell tower and cathedral are unique. In addition, Bern has the Niederger Church built in 1492, and the Renaissance palace-style federal government building built in 1852 to 1857.
The famous University of Bern was founded in 1834. The National Library, Municipal Library and Bern University Library have collected a large number of precious manuscripts and rare books. In addition, there are museums of history, nature, art, and weapons in the city. The headquarters of international organizations such as the Universal Postal Union, the International Telecommunications Union, the International Railway Union and the International Copyright Union are also located here.
Bern is also known as the "capital of watches". In addition to watch production, there are also chocolate processing, machinery, instrument, textile, chemical and other industries. In addition, as a distribution center for Swiss agricultural products and a railway transportation hub, there are railways connecting Zurich and Geneva. In summer, Belpmoos Airport, 9.6 kilometers southeast of Bern, has regular flights to Zurich.
Geneva: Geneva (Geneva) is located on the picturesque Lake Leman. It borders France on its south, east and west sides. It has been a battleground for military strategists since ancient times. From the map, Geneva protrudes from the territory of Switzerland. The narrowest place in the middle is only 4 kilometers. The land in many places is shared with France. Half of the Kvantland International Airport also belongs to France. The quiet Rhone River passes through the city. At the confluence of the lake and the river, several bridges connect the old city and the new city on the north and south banks. The population is 200,000. The lowest temperature in January is -1℃ and the highest temperature in July is 26℃. French is common in Geneva, and English is also very popular.
Geneva is an international city, some people jokingly claim that "Geneva does not belong to Switzerland." The main reason is that there are concentrated international organizations such as the United Nations headquarters in Geneva and the International Red Cross; this is a place where tourists from all over the world gather; in order to make up for the shortage of labor, there are many people from Mediterranean countries who come to work here. Another reason is that historically, since the Calvin Reformation, Geneva has become a refuge for those who oppose the old system. Rousseau was born among the Genevans who were very tolerant of innovative ideas. Voltaire, Byron, and Lenin also came to Geneva in search of a peaceful environment. It can be said that this international city was born in more than 500 years.
The simple and elegant buildings in the old town on the hills are in sharp contrast with the modern buildings in the new town, which clearly reflects the glorious development of this medieval old town into a modern international city. The stone-paved streets in the old city stretched out narrowly and crookedly toward the front, as if a silently stretched out arm, to take you to a century of fairy tales. In the shadow of the green trees, the flickering European architecture is simple and solemn. Antique shops are hung with yellow and green circular signs on both sides of the street. The city built on Lake Leman is the new city of Geneva. The commercial and residential areas in the city center are neat and spacious, with reasonable layout. In the everywhere park, towering old trees, quiet and beautiful. Whether you are in an old city or a new city, whether in the suburbs or tourist spots, you are presented with a beautiful city full of flowers and beautiful scenery.
Geneva is also a cultural and artistic center, with more than ten museums and exhibition halls. The most famous of these is the Art and History Museum located at the southern end of the Old Town. The museum displays cultural relics, weapons, handicrafts, ancient paintings, and portraits of many historical celebrities, such as the humanities scholar Rousseau, the 16th century religious reform leader, and the Renaissance representative Calvin. The archaeological discoveries on the first floor show the development of civilization from prehistoric to modern times, and the second floor is dominated by paintings and other fine arts and decorations. The most valuable piece is the altar painting by Konrad Witz for the Geneva Cathedral in 1444, entitled "The Miracle of Fishing."
The most famous building in Geneva is the Palais des Nations, which is the seat of the United Nations headquarters in Geneva. It is located in the Ariane Park on the right bank of Lake Geneva, covering an area of 326,000 square meters. The building decoration reflects the characteristics of "Worldwide" everywhere. The exterior of the street is made of Italian lime, the limestone of the Rhone River and the Jura Mountains, the interior is made of marble from France, Italy and Sweden, and the brown hemp carpets on the ground are from the Philippines. Member states donated a variety of decorations and furnishings. The paintings described by the famous Spanish painter Pause Maria Sete who conquered war and eulogize peace are the most eye-catching. The armillary sphere presented by the United States in memory of President Woodrow Wilson The Monument to Conquer the Universe was donated by the former Soviet Union to commemorate its achievements in the field of space technology. There are also sculptures created by Dwinner-Sands to commemorate the International Year of Children and pine, cypress and other fine trees donated by member states.
Lausanne: Lausanne (Lausanne) is located in southwestern Switzerland, on the northern shore of Lake Geneva, and south of the Jura Mountains. It is a famous tourist attraction and health resort. Lausanne was built in the 4th century and became the capital of Vaud (Wat) in 1803. The city is surrounded by mountains and lakes. The Furlong River and the Loof River pass through the urban area, dividing the city into three parts. The city has beautiful scenery, and many famous European writers such as Byron, Rousseau, Hugo and Dickens have lived here, so Lausanne is also known as the "International Cultural City".
Famous ancient buildings in Lausanne include the Gothic Catholic Cathedral, which was built in the 12th century and is known as the most exquisite building in Switzerland, and the Catholic palace tower, which was completed in the 14th century and partly turned into a museum , The Protestant Theological Seminary, established in 1537, later became a center for studying the teachings of the French religious reformer Calvin, and has now become the University of Lausanne, a comprehensive institution of higher learning. In addition, there is the Lausanne Hotel School, the world’s first hotel school established in 1893. In the suburbs, there are ancient ruins such as weapons depots, clock towers and suspension bridges in the Chiron Castle built in the early 14th century.
Lausanne is located in a wealthy agricultural area, with developed trade and commerce, and the winemaking industry is particularly well-known. The headquarters of the International Olympic Committee and the European Cancer Research Center are located here. Many international conferences are also held here. After the opening of the Simplon Tunnel in 1906, Lausanne became a must pass from Paris, France to Milan, Italy, and Geneva to Berne. Today Lausanne has become an important railway hub and air station.