United Kingdom BASIC INFOMATION
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United Kingdom Introduction
The UK has a total area of 243,600 square kilometers. It is an island country in western Europe. It is composed of Great Britain, the northeastern part of Ireland and some small islands. It faces the European mainland across the North Sea, the Strait of Dover, and the English Channel. Its land borders with the Republic of Ireland, with a total coastline of 11,450 kilometers. Britain has a maritime temperate broad-leaved forest climate, mild and humid throughout the year. The whole territory is divided into four parts: the plains of southeast England, the mountains of the Midwest, the mountains of Scotland, the plateaus of Northern Ireland and the mountains. |
United Kingdom, the full name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It covers an area of 243,600 square kilometers (including inland waters), including 134,400 square kilometers in England, 78,800 square kilometers in Scotland, 20,800 square kilometers in Wales, and 13,600 square kilometers in Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom is an island country located in the western part of Europe, consisting of Great Britain (including England, Scotland, Wales), the northeastern part of the island of Ireland and some small islands. It faces the European continent across the North Sea, the Strait of Dover, and the English Channel. Its land borders with the Republic of Ireland. The coastline has a total length of 11,450 kilometers. The whole territory is divided into four parts: the plains of southeast England, the mountains of the Midwest, the mountains of Scotland, the plateaus of Northern Ireland and the mountains. It has a maritime temperate broad-leaved forest climate, mild and humid throughout the year. Usually the highest temperature does not exceed 32℃, the lowest temperature is not lower than -10℃, the average temperature is 4～7℃ in January and 13～17℃ in July. Rainy and foggy, especially in autumn and winter.
The United Kingdom is divided into four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. England is divided into 43 counties, Scotland has 29 districts and 3 special jurisdictions, Northern Ireland has 26 districts, and Wales has 22 districts. In addition, the UK has 12 territories.
B.C. Mediterranean Iberians, Picnics and Celts came to Britain successively. The southeastern part of Great Britain was ruled by the Roman Empire in the 1-5 centuries. After the Romans withdrew, the Anglo, Saxon and Jutes in northern Europe invaded and settled one after another. The feudal system began to take shape in the 7th century, and many small countries merged into seven kingdoms, fighting for the hegemony for 200 years, known as the "Anglo-Saxon Era" in history. In 829, Egerbert, King of Wessex, unified England. Invaded by the Danes at the end of the 8th century, it was part of the Danish pirate empire from 1016 to 1042. After a short period of rule by the British king, the Duke of Normandy crossed the sea to conquer England in 1066. In 1215 King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta, and the kingship was suppressed. From 1338 to 1453, Britain and France fought the "Hundred Years War". Britain won first and then lost. Defeated the Spanish "Invincible Fleet" in 1588 and established maritime hegemony.
In 1640, Britain broke out the first bourgeois revolution in the world and became the forerunner of the bourgeois revolution. On May 19, 1649, the republic was announced. The dynasty was restored in 1660 and the "Glorious Revolution" took place in 1668, establishing a constitutional monarchy. England merged with Scotland in 1707 and then merged with Ireland in 1801. From the second half of the 18th century to the first half of the 19th century, it became the first country in the world to complete the industrial revolution. The 19th century was the heyday of the British Empire. The colony occupied in 1914 was 111 times larger than that of the mainland. It was the first colonial power and claimed to be the "empire that never sets in the sun." It began to decline after the First World War. The United Kingdom established North Ireland in 1920 and allowed southern Ireland to break away from its rule from 1921 to 1922 and establish an independent country. The Westminster Act was promulgated in 1931, and it was forced to recognize its dominion to be independent in domestic and foreign affairs, and the colonial system of the British Empire was shaken ever since. During the Second World War, economic power was greatly weakened and political status declined. With the successive independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, the British colonial system collapsed in the 1960s.
National flag: It is a horizontal rectangle with a ratio of length to width of 2:1. It is the "Rice" flag, which is composed of a dark blue background and red and white "Rice". The red cross with a white border in the flag represents the patron saint George of England, the white cross represents the patron saint of Scotland Andrew, and the red cross represents the patron saint of Ireland Patrick. This flag was produced in 1801. It was made up of the original England white ground red positive ten flag, Scotland’s blue ground white cross flag and Ireland’s white ground red cross cross flag.
The UK has a population of approximately 60.2 million (June 2005), of which 50.4 million are in England, 5.1 million in Scotland, 3 million in Wales, and 1.7 million in Northern Ireland. Both the official and lingua franca are English. Welsh is also spoken in northern Wales, and Gaelic is still spoken in the Northwest Highlands of Scotland and parts of Northern Ireland. Residents mostly believe in Protestant Christianity, mainly divided into the Church of England (also known as the Anglican Church, whose members account for about 60% of British adults) and the Church of Scotland (also known as the Presbyterian Church, with 660,000 adult members). There are also larger religious communities such as the Catholic Church and Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism and Islam.
Britain is one of the world's economic powers, and its gross domestic product ranks among the forefront of Western countries. In 2006, the gross national product was 2341.371 billion U.S. dollars, and the per capita reached 38,636 U.S. dollars. In recent decades, the share of British manufacturing in the national economy has declined; the share of service industries and energy has continued to increase, of which commerce, finance and insurance have developed rapidly. Private enterprises are the mainstay of the British economy, accounting for more than 60% of GDP. The service industry is one of the standards for measuring the degree of development of a modern country. The service industry in the UK accounts for 77.5% of its total employed population, and its output value accounts for more than 63% of its GDP. The United Kingdom is the country with the richest energy resources in the European Union, and is also the world's main producer of oil and natural gas. The coal mining industry is completely privatized. The main industries are: mining, metallurgy, machinery, electronic equipment, automobiles, food, beverages, tobacco, textiles, papermaking, printing, publishing, construction, etc. In addition, the aviation, electronics, chemical and other industries in the UK are relatively advanced, and emerging technologies such as subsea oil exploration, information engineering, satellite communications, and microelectronics have developed significantly in recent years. The main agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery are animal husbandry, grain industry, horticulture, and fishery. The service industry includes finance and insurance, retail, tourism and business services (providing legal and consulting services, etc.), and has developed rapidly in recent years. Tourism is one of the most important economic sectors in the UK. The annual output value is more than 70 billion pounds, and tourism revenue accounts for about 5% of world tourism revenue. Unlike countries that focus on scenic tourism, the British royal culture and museum culture are the biggest attractions of the tourism industry. The main tourist spots are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff, Brighton, Greenwich, Oxford, Cambridge, etc.
London: London, the capital of the United Kingdom (London), is located on the plains of southeast England, across the Thames and 88 kilometers from the mouth of the Thames. As early as 3000 years ago, the London area was where the British lived. In 54 BC, the Roman Empire invaded Great Britain. In 43 BC, it was once the main military station of the Romans and built the first wooden bridge across the Thames. After the 16th century, with the rise of British capitalism, the scale of London expanded rapidly. In 1500, the population of London was only 50,000. Since then, it has continued to grow. By 2001, the population of London reached 7.188 million.
London is the political center of the country. It is the seat of the British royal family, government, parliament and the headquarters of various political parties. The Palace of Westminster is the venue for the upper and lower houses of the British Parliament, so it is also called the Parliament Hall. Westminster Abbey on the south side of Parliament Square has been the place where the British king or queen was crowned and the royal family members held weddings after it was completed in 1065. There are more than 20 cemeteries of British kings, famous politicians, military strategists, scientists, writers and artists such as Newton, Darwin, Dickens, Hardy, etc.
Buckingham Palace is the British Royal Palace. It is located in the central area of West London. It is connected to St. James's Park to the east and Hyde Park to the west. It is the place where members of the British royal family live and work, and is also a place for major British state affairs. Whitehall is the seat of the British government. The prime minister's office, the Privy Council, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance, and the Ministry of Defense are all located here. The core of Whitehall is the Prime Minister's Mansion at No. 10 Downing Street, which is the official residence of the British prime ministers. London is not only the political center of the United Kingdom, but also the headquarters of many international organizations, including the International Maritime Organization, the International Cooperative Union, the International PEN, the International Women’s League, the Socialist International, and Amnesty International.
London is a world cultural city. The British Museum was built in the 18th century and is the largest museum in the world. It has collected many ancient relics from Britain and other countries in the world. In addition to the British Museum, London also has cultural facilities such as the famous Science Museum and National Gallery. The University of London, Royal School of Dance, Royal College of Music, Royal College of Art and Imperial College are famous universities in the UK. The University of London was established in 1836 and now has more than 60 colleges. The University of London is famous for its medical sciences, and one out of every three doctors in the UK graduated here.
London is a world-famous tourist city with many world-famous cultural relics. On Tower Hill in the southeast corner of the City of London, there is the Tower of London, which was once used as a military fortress, royal palace, prison, archives, and is now an exhibition place for crowns and weapons. Located on the west bank of the Thames, the Palace of Westminster was built in 750 AD and covers an area of 8 acres. It is the largest Gothic building in the world. Hyde Park is one of the most famous places in London. It is located in the western part of the city of London. It covers an area of 636 acres and is the largest park in the city. There is the famous "Speaker's Corner" also known as "Freedom Forum" in the park. Every weekday, people come here to speak almost all day.
Manchester: It is the center of the British cotton textile industry, an important transportation hub and commercial, financial and cultural center. Located in the center of the metropolis in northwest England. Greater Manchester includes Salford, Stockport, Oldham, Rochdale, Bury, Bolton, Wigan and Wallington, covering an area of 1,287 square kilometers.
Manchester is famous for its sports reputation, especially for having famous football clubs. When it comes to Manchester, people naturally think of football. Manchester not only has famous football clubs, it is also the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution and one of the most vibrant and dynamic cities in the UK. It is also changing from an industrial city based on manufacturing to a prosperous, modern and vibrant international metropolis. There are many museums and galleries in the city, showing the profound cultural accumulation and long history of the city. Manchester’s nightlife is second to none in the UK. There are countless bars, pubs, and entertainment venues scattered throughout the city. Visitors to Manchester will not miss the opportunity to see its nightlife.
Glasgow: Glasgow (Glasgow) is the third largest city in the UK and Scotland's largest industrial and commercial city and port. Located in the lowlands of central Scotland, across the Clyde River, 32 kilometers west of the mouth of the river. In 550 AD, Glasgow established a bishopric and was chartered as a market by the King of Scotland in the 12th century. It became a royal municipality in 1450. After the merger of Scotland and England in 1603, it promoted economic development and became an important foreign trade port. After the start of the industrial revolution, it developed more rapidly. The population soared from 77,000 in 1801 to 762,000 in 1901, ranking second in the country and becoming one of the largest shipbuilding industrial centers in the world.
After the Second World War, industries such as electronics, radar, and oil refining were established. Since the beginning of the 20th century, economic development has been relatively slow and the population has not increased, but industry and commerce still occupy an important position in China. The main industrial sectors include shipbuilding, machine manufacturing, electrical equipment, precision instruments, etc. The shipbuilding industry ranks first in the country, with dozens of shipyards. Glasgow is one of the most important transportation hubs in the UK. It is also the main cultural center of Scotland. The famous University of Glasgow was founded in 1451, and there are many higher education institutions such as the University of Strathclyde, the Scottish Business School, the Royal Scottish Conservatory of Music, and the Western Scotland Agricultural College. The Art Gallery and Museum in Kelvingrove Park houses the collection of famous European artworks since the Renaissance. The Huntlyn Museum attached to the University of Glasgow is famous for its collection of various coins and art treasures. Among the city’s historical sites, the Cathedral of San Mongo, built in the 12th century, is the most famous. There are more than 2,000 hectares of parks and green spaces in the city. Hampden Park also has the largest football field in the UK, which can accommodate 150,000 people.