Turkmenistan COUNTRY CODE +993

How to dial Turkmenistan









latitude / longitude
38°58'6"N / 59°33'46"E
Manat (TMT)
Turkmen (official) 72%
Russian 12%
Uzbek 9%
other 7%
National flag
TurkmenistanNational flag
banks list
Turkmenistan banks list
488,100 KM2

Turkmenistan Introduction

Turkmenistan is a landlocked country in southwestern Central Asia with a territorial area of ​​491,200 square kilometers. It borders the Caspian Sea to the west, Iran and Afghanistan to the south and southeast, and Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan to the north and northeast. Most of the territory is lowland, the plains are mostly below 200 meters above sea level, 80% of the territory is covered by the Karakum Desert, and the Kopet Mountains and Palotmiz Mountains are in the south and west. It has a strong continental climate and is one of the driest areas in the world.

Turkmenistan has an area of ​​491,200 square kilometers and is a landlocked country located in southwestern Central Asia. It borders the Caspian Sea to the west, Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the northeast, Afghanistan to the east, and Iran to the south. Most of the whole territory is lowland, the plains are mostly below 200 meters above sea level, and 80% of the territory is covered by the Karakum Desert. To the south and west are the Kopet Mountains and Palotmiz Mountains. The main rivers are the Amu Darya, Tejan, Murghab and Atrek, which are mainly distributed in the east. The Karakum Grand Canal that runs across the southeast is 1,450 kilometers long and has an irrigated area of ​​about 300,000 hectares. It has a strong continental climate and is one of the driest areas in the world.

Except for the capital Ashgabat, the country is divided into 5 states, 16 cities, and 46 districts. The five states are: Akhal, Balkan, Lebap, Mare and Dasagoz.

In history, it was conquered by Persians, Macedonians, Turks, Arabs, and Mongol Tatars. From the 9th to 10th centuries AD, it was ruled by the Taheri Dynasty and the Saman Dynasty. From the 11th to the 15th century, it was ruled by the Mongol Tatars. The Turkmen nation was basically formed in the 15th century. The 16-17th generations belonged to the Khanate of Khiva and Khanate of Bukhara. From the late 1860s to the mid-1980s, part of the territory was merged into Russia. The Turkmen people participated in the February Revolution and October Socialist Revolution of 1917. The Soviet power was established in December 1917, and its territory was incorporated into the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Khorazmo and the Bukhara Soviet People's Republic. After delimiting the ethnic management area, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic was established on October 27, 1924 and joined the Soviet Union. On August 23, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of Turkmenistan passed the Declaration of State Sovereignty, declared independence on October 27, 1991, changed its name to Turkmenistan, and joined the Union on December 21 of the same year.

National flag: It is a horizontal rectangle with a ratio of length to width of about 5:3. The flag ground is dark green, with a vertical wide band passing through the flag on one side of the flag pole, and five carpet patterns are arranged from top to bottom in the wide band. There is a crescent moon and five five-pointed stars in the middle of the upper part of the flag. The moon and stars are all white. Green is the traditional color that Turkmen people like; the crescent moon symbolizes a bright future; the five stars symbolize the five organ functions of human beings; sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch; the five-pointed star symbolizes the state of the universe's matter: solid, Liquid, gas, crystalline and plasma; the carpet pattern symbolizes the traditional ideas and religious beliefs of the Turkmen people. Turkmenistan became one of the republics of the former Soviet Union in October 1924. The national flag adopted from 1953 was to add two blue stripes on the flag of the former Soviet Union. In October 1991, independence was declared and the current national flag was adopted.

Turkmenistan has a population of nearly 7 million (March 2006). There are more than 100 ethnic groups, of which 77% are Turkmen, 9.2% of Uzbeks, 6.7% of Russians, 2% of Kazakhs, 0.8% of Armenians, in addition to Azerbaijani and Tatars. General Russian. The official language is Turkmen, which belongs to the southern branch of the Altaic language family. Before 1927, the Turkmen language was written in the Arabic alphabet, later in the Latin alphabet, and since 1940, the Cyrillic alphabet was used. Most of the residents believe in Islam (Sunni), and the Russians and Armenians believe in the Orthodox Church.

Oil and natural gas are the pillar industries of Turkmenistan’s national economy, and agriculture mainly grows cotton and wheat. The mineral resources are rich, mainly including oil, natural gas, mirabilite, iodine, non-ferrous and rare metals. Most of the country's land is desert, but there are abundant oil and natural gas resources underground. Proved reserves of natural gas are 22.8 trillion cubic meters, accounting for about a quarter of the world's total reserves, and oil reserves are 12 billion tons. Oil production has increased from 3 million tons per year before independence to 10 million tons now. The annual output of natural gas has reached 60 billion cubic meters, and the export volume has reached 45 to 50 billion cubic meters. Foods such as meat, milk and oil are also fully self-sufficient. Turkmenistan has also built a number of new thermal power plants, and its citizens use electricity for free. The GDP in 2004 reached 19 billion U.S. dollars, an increase of 21.4% over the previous year, and the per capita GDP was nearly 3,000 U.S. dollars.

Ashgabat: Ashgabat is the capital of Turkmenistan (Ashgabat), the national political, economic and cultural center, and one of the important cities in Central Asia. Located in central and southern Turkmenistan and on the southern edge of the Karakum Desert, it is a relatively young but hard-working city in Central Asia. The altitude is 215 meters and the area is more than 300 square kilometers. The population is 680,000. It has a temperate continental arid climate, with an average temperature of 4.4℃ in January and 27.7℃ in July. The average monthly rainfall is only 5 mm.

Ashgabad was originally the castle of the Turkmen branch of Jiezhen, meaning "City of Love". In 1881, Tsarist Russia formed the Houli Naval District and set up an administrative center here. On the eve of World War I, the city became a trading center between Tsarist Russia and Iran. In 1925 it became the capital of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic. After the end of World War II, the Soviet government carried out large-scale post-war construction in Ashgabat. However, in October 1948, there was a 9-10 magnitude earthquake on the Richter scale, which almost destroyed the entire city, nearly 180,000. People died. It was rebuilt in 1958, and after more than 50 years of construction and development, Ashgabat has re-developed. On December 27, 1991, Turkmenistan declared its independence and Ashgabat became the capital of Turkmenistan.

After Turkmenistan declared its independence in October 1991, the government decided to build the capital into a unique white marble city, water city and green capital in the world. Ashgabat is one of the fastest growing cities in the world. All new buildings are designed by French architects and built by Turks. The surface of the building is covered with all white marble from Iran, making the whole city look white and bright.

Gardens, lawns, and fountains can be seen everywhere in the city, and the famous Central Cultural and Rest Park near the National Theater is lush with vegetation and fragrance of flowers. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the large-scale buildings newly built in the city are everywhere. The presidential palace is magnificent, the neutral gate, the earthquake memorial complex, the national museum and the orphanage are unique.