Bosnia and Herzegovina COUNTRY CODE +387

How to dial Bosnia and Herzegovina






Bosnia and Herzegovina BASIC INFOMATION



latitude / longitude
43°53'33"N / 17°40'13"E
Marka (BAM)
Bosnian (official)
Croatian (official)
Serbian (official)
National flag
Bosnia and HerzegovinaNational flag
banks list
Bosnia and Herzegovina banks list
51,129 KM2

Bosnia and Herzegovina Introduction

The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in the central part of former Yugoslavia, between Croatia and Serbia. The area is 51129 square kilometers. The country is mainly mountainous, with the Denara Mountains in the west. The Sava River (a tributary of the Danube) is the border between northern Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. In the south, there is a 20-kilometer estuary on the Adriatic Sea. The coastline is about 25 kilometers long. The terrain is dominated by mountains, with an average elevation of 693 meters. Most of the Dinar Alps runs through the entire territory from northwest to southeast. The highest peak is the Magrich Mountain with an elevation of 2386 meters. There are many rivers in the territory, mainly including Neretva, Bosna, Drina, Una and Varbas. The north has a mild continental climate, and the south has a Mediterranean climate.

Bosnia and Herzegovina, the full name of Bosnia and Herzegovina, is located in the central part of former Yugoslavia, between Croatia and Serbia. The area is 51129 square kilometers. The population of 4.01 million (2004), of which the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina accounts for 62.5%, and the Serbian Republic accounts for 37.5%. The main ethnic groups are: Bosniaks (that is, the Muslim ethnic group in the former southern period), accounting for about 43.5% of the total population; Serbian ethnicity, accounting for about 31.2% of the total population; Croatian ethnicity, accounting for about 17. 4%. The three ethnic groups believe in Islam, Orthodox Church and Catholicism respectively. The official languages ​​are Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian. Bosnia and Herzegovina is rich in mineral resources, mainly iron ore, lignite, bauxite, lead-zinc ore, asbestos, rock salt, barite, etc. Waterpower and forest resources are abundant, and the forest coverage area accounts for 46.6% of the entire territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

BiH is composed of two entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Serbia. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 states: Unna-Sana, Posavina, Tuzla-Podrinje, Zenica-Doboj, Bosna-Podrinje, Central Bosnia States, Herzegovina-Neretva, West Herzegovina, Sarajevo, West Bosnia. The Republika Srpska has 7 districts: Banja Luka, Doboj, Belina, Vlasenica, Sokolac, Srbine and Trebinje . In 1999, the Brčko Special Zone was established, directly under the state.

National flag: The background color is blue, the pattern is a large golden triangle, and there is a row of white stars along one side of the triangle. The three sides of the big triangle symbolize the three main ethnic groups that make up the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, namely the Muslim, Serbian and Croatian ethnic groups. Gold is the brilliance of the sun, symbolizing hope. The blue background and white stars symbolize Europe and signify that Bosnia and Herzegovina is a part of Europe.

At the end of the 6th century and the beginning of the 7th century, some Slavs moved south to the Balkans and settled in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the end of the 12th century, the Slavs established an independent Principality of Bosnia. At the end of the 14th century, Bosnia was the most powerful country in the southern Slavs. It became a Turkish possession after 1463 and was occupied by the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1908. After the end of the First World War in 1918, the southern Slavic peoples established the Serb-Croatian-Slovenian Kingdom, which was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of it and was divided into several administrative provinces. In 1945, the people of all ethnic groups in Yugoslavia won the anti-fascist war and established the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (renamed the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1963), and Bosnia and Herzegovina became a republic of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In March 1992, Bosnia and Herzegovina held a referendum on whether the country was independent or not. The Bosnia and Herzegovina were in favor of independence, and the Serbs resisted the vote. After that, a three-and-a-half-year war broke out between the Bosnia and Herzegovina. On May 22, 1992, Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the United Nations. On November 21, 1995, under the auspices of the United States, President Milosevic of the Republic of Serbia of Yugoslavia, President Tudjman of the Republic of Croatia and President Izetbegovic of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina signed the Dayton-Bosnia-Herzegovina Peace Agreement. The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina is over.

Sarajevo: Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo), is an important industrial and railway transportation center. It was famous for the outbreak of the First World War (Sarajevo Incident). Located near the upper reaches of the Boyana River, a tributary of the Sava River, Sarajevo is an ancient city surrounded by mountains and beautiful scenery. It covers an area of ​​142 square kilometers and has a population of 310,000 (2002).

Sarajevo has changed its name several times in history, and its current name means "Palace of the Governor of the Sultan" in Turkish. This shows that the Turkish culture has a profound influence on the city. In 395 AD, after defeating Maximus, Emperor Theodosius I moved the border between the Western and Eastern empires to the vicinity of Sarajevo before his death. At that time, Sarajevo was just a little-known town. In the late 15th century, the Turkish Ottoman Empire defeated Serbia, occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina, and forced local residents to convert to Islam, making some residents Muslims. At the same time, the Austro-Hungarian Empire armed the Serbs and used them to guard the frontiers for themselves, and from then on began a battle that lasted for centuries. Historically, along a route along the central part of the former Yugoslavia (more precisely through Bosnia and Herzegovina), Catholics and Orthodox, Christians and Islam, Germans and Slavs, Russians and Westerners have all fought desperately here. Sarajevo's strategic position has therefore become extremely important. Years of wars made this little-known town a well-known city, and became the focus of competition between various factions, and eventually became the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Sarajevo is an ancient city with beautiful scenery, unique city appearance and different architectural styles. Since it has changed hands several times in history, different rulers have brought all kinds of ethnic customs and religions to the city, making it the intersection of Eastern and Western economic culture, and gradually developed into a city that blends east and west. . The city has both 19th century Austrian-style tawny buildings, Oriental-style pavilions and Turkish-style handicraft workshops.

The central city is mostly classical buildings from the Austro-Hungarian Empire era. Catholic churches, Orthodox churches and Islamic mosque towers with spires are coordinatedly distributed in the city. The Muslim population in Sarajevo accounts for more than one-third, making it a place where Muslims live. Therefore, Sarajevo is known as the "Cairo of Europe" and the "Muslim Capital of Europe". There are more than 100 mosques in the city, among which the oldest is the Archi-Hislu-Bek Mosque built in the 16th century. The museum in the city also houses the famous Hebrew manuscript "Hagada", which is the rare relics such as various legends and anecdotes cited in the Jewish interpretation of the "Bible". The strong Islamic atmosphere formed after the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina makes you sometimes feel like you are in the Arab world in the Middle East. This unique style is obviously different from other traditional European cities, so Sarajevo is now known as the Jerusalem of Europe.

In addition, Sarajevo is also the hub of land transportation and the economic and cultural center of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The main industries include power equipment, automobile manufacturing, metal processing, chemistry, textiles, ceramics, and food processing. There is also a university and several hospitals in the city with the School of Mining, Polytechnic, Science and Fine Arts.