Turkey BASIC INFOMATION
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|38°57'41 / 35°15'6|
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other minority languages
|Turkey banks list|
Turkey straddles Asia and Europe, between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, with a total area of about 780,576 square kilometers. It is bordered by Iran in the east, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan in the northeast, Syria and Iraq in the southeast, Bulgaria and Greece in the northwest, the Black Sea to the north, and Cyprus across the Mediterranean to the west and southwest. The coastline is 3,518 kilometers long. The coastal area has a subtropical Mediterranean climate, and the inland plateau transitions to a tropical grassland and desert climate.
Turkey, the full name of the Republic of Turkey, straddles Asia and Europe and lies between the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Most of the territory is located in Asia Minor Peninsula, and the European part is located in the southeast of the Balkan Peninsula. The total area of the country is about 780,576 square kilometers. It borders Iran in the east, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan in the northeast, Syria and Iraq in the southeast, Bulgaria and Greece in the northwest, the Black Sea to the north, and Cyprus to the west and southwest across the Mediterranean Sea. The Bosphorus and Dardanelles, as well as the Marmara Sea between the two straits, are the only waterways connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, and their strategic location is very important. The coastline is 3,518 kilometers long. The terrain is high in the east and low in the west, mostly plateaus and mountains, with narrow and long plains only along the coast. The coastal areas belong to the subtropical Mediterranean climate, and the inland plateau transitions to tropical grasslands and desert climates. The temperature difference is large. The annual average temperature is 14-20℃ and 4-18℃ respectively. The average annual rainfall is 700-2500 mm along the Black Sea, 500-700 mm along the Mediterranean Sea, and 250-400 mm inland.
The administrative divisions in Turkey are classified into provinces, counties, townships, and villages. The country is divided into 81 provinces, about 600 counties, and more than 36,000 villages.
The birthplace of the Turks is the Altai Mountains in Xinjiang, China, known as Turks in history. In the 7th century, the Eastern and Western Turkic Khanates were successively destroyed by Tang. From the 8th to the 13th centuries, the Turks moved west to Asia Minor. The Ottoman Empire was established in the early 14th century. The 15th and 16th centuries entered its heyday, and its territory expanded to Europe, Asia, and Africa. It began to decline at the end of the 16th century. At the beginning of the 20th century, it became a semi-colony of Britain, France, Germany and other countries. In 1919, Mustafa Kemal launched the national bourgeois revolution. In 1922, he defeated the foreign invading army and established the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. Kemal was elected president. In March 1924, the throne of the Ottoman Caliph (former Islamic leader monarch) was abolished.
The national flag: It is rectangular with a ratio of length to width of 3:2. The flag is red, with a white crescent moon and a white five-pointed star on the side of the flagpole. Red symbolizes blood and victory; the crescent moon and star symbolize driving away darkness and ushering in light. It also symbolizes the Turkish people’s belief in Islam, and also symbolizes happiness and good fortune.
Turkey has a population of 67.31 million (2002). Turks account for more than 80%, and Kurds account for about 15%. Turkish is the national language, and more than 80% of the country’s population are Turkish, in addition to Kurdish, Armenian, Arab, and Greek. 99% of the residents believe in Islam.
Turkey is a traditional agriculture and animal husbandry country, with good agriculture, basically self-sufficient in grain, cotton, vegetables, fruits, meat, etc., and the value of agricultural production accounts for the entire nation About 20% of the GDP. The agricultural population accounts for 46% of the total population. Agricultural products mainly include wheat, barley, corn, sugar beet, cotton, tobacco and potatoes. Food and fruit can be self-sufficient and exportable. Ankara wool is famous all over the world. Rich in mineral resources, mainly boron, chromium, copper, iron, bauxite and coal. The reserves of boron trioxide and chromium ore are about 70 million tons and 100 million tons respectively, both of which rank among the top in the world. The coal reserves are about 6.5 billion tons, mostly lignite. The forest area is 20 million hectares. However, oil and natural gas are in short supply and need to be imported in large quantities. The industry has a certain foundation, and the textile and food industries are relatively developed. The main industrial sectors include steel, cement, mechanical and electrical products, and automobiles. The industrial and agricultural areas in the western coastal areas are very developed, and the inland areas in the east are blocked in traffic and the productivity level is relatively lagging. Turkey enjoys unique tourism resources. The historical sites are dotted in its territory, including the Temple of Artemis, the Seven Wonders of the World, the historic cities of Istanbul, and the ancient city of Ephesus. Tourism has become one of the important pillars of the Turkish national economy.
Ankara: Ankara is the capital of Turkey, a country at the turn of Europe and Asia. It is located in the northwest part of the Anatolian Plateau on the Asia Minor Peninsula. It is a plateau city about 900 meters above sea level. Ankara has a long history that can be traced back to the ancient century. Some historians believe that, as early as the 13th century BC, the Heti people built a castle in Ankara, which was called "Ankuva", or its diacritic "Angela". Another legend believes that the city was built by Phrygian King Midas around 700 BC, and because he found an iron anchor there, this became the name of the city. After several changes, it became "Ankara".
Before the founding of the Republic, Ankara was just a small city. Now it has developed into a modern city with a population of 3.9 million (2002), second only to the economic center and ancient capital Istanbul. . Ankara is famous for its administrative center and commercial city. Its industry is not very developed, and its economic importance is far less than that of Istanbul, Izmir, Adana and other cities. There are only a few small and medium-sized factories here. The terrain of Ankara is uneven and the climate is semi-continental. The main agricultural products are wheat, barley, beans, fruits, vegetables, grapes, etc. Livestock mainly includes sheep, Angora goats, and cattle. Ankara has been a transportation hub since ancient times, with railways and air routes leading to all parts of the country.
Istanbul: The historic Turkish city Istanbul (Istanbul) is located at the eastern end of the Balkan Peninsula, choking the Black Sea. It is the largest city and port in Turkey with a population of over 12 million (2003 year). As the boundary between Europe and Asia, the Bosphorus Strait passes through the city, dividing this ancient city into two, and Istanbul has become the only city in the world that crosses Europe and Asia. Istanbul was founded in 660 BC and was called Byzantium at the time. In 324 AD, Constantine the Great of the Roman Empire moved its capital from Rome and changed its name to Constantinople. In 395 AD, Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (also known as the Byzantine Empire) after the split of the Roman Empire. In 1453 AD, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II captured the city and destroyed Eastern Rome. It became the capital of the Ottoman Empire and was renamed Istanbul until the Turkish Republic was established in 1923 and moved to Ankara.
At the beginning of the 13th century, when the Crusaders attacked, this ancient city was burned down. Today, the urban area has expanded to the north of the Golden Horn and Uskdar on the east coast of the Bosphorus. In the old city of Istanbul to the south of the Golden Horn, there is still a city wall that separates the city on the peninsula from the mainland. After recent years of municipal construction, Istanbul’s cityscape has become more colorful, including ancient streets winding along the strait, as well as the spacious and straight Turkey Avenue, Independence Avenue, and modern buildings on both sides of the avenue. Under the sky, the mosque minaret gleams, the red-roofed Gothic architecture and the antique Islamic houses are intertwined; the modern Intercontinental Hotel and the ancient Roman Theodosius wall complement each other. Nearly 1700 years of history of the capital has left colorful cultural relics in Istanbul. There are more than 3,000 large and small mosques in the city, which can be used for worship of 10 million Muslims in the city. In addition, there are more than 1,000 towering minarets in the city. In Istanbul, as long as you look around, there will always be minarets with different shapes. Therefore, the city is also known as the "Minaret City".
Speaking of Istanbul, people naturally think of the only Bosphorus Bridge in the world that spans Europe and Asia. Its majestic posture, beautiful strait scenery and famous millennium monuments make Istanbul a world-famous tourist attraction. The Bosphorus Bridge was built in 1973. It connects the cities divided by the strait and also connects the two continents of Europe and Asia. This is a unique suspension bridge with a total length of 1560 meters. Except for the steel frame at both ends, there are no piers in the middle. Various types of ships can pass. It is the largest suspension bridge in Europe and the fourth largest in the world. At night, the lights on the bridge are bright, looking from a distance, it looks like a dragon volleys in the sky. In addition, the city has also built Galata Bridge and Ataturk Bridge to connect the new and old towns.