Israel COUNTRY CODE +972

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31°25'6"N / 35°4'24"E
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Type H Israel 3-pin Type H Israel 3-pin
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20,770 KM2

Israel Introduction

Israel is located in western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, and the Gulf of Aqaba to the south. It is the junction of the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe. The coast is a long and narrow plain. Mountains and plateaus have a Mediterranean climate. Israel has a long history and is the birthplace of Judaism, Islam and Christianity. According to the 1947 United Nations Resolution on the Partition of Palestine, the area of ​​Israel is 14,900 square kilometers.

Israel, the full name of the State of Israel, according to the 1947 United Nations Resolution on the Partition of Palestine, the area of ​​the State of Israel is 14,900 square kilometers. It is located in western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, and the Gulf of Aqaba to the south. It is the junction of Asia, Africa and Europe. The coast is a long and narrow plain, with mountains and plateaus in the east. It has a Mediterranean climate.

Israel has a long history and is the birthplace of the world’s major religions Judaism, Islam and Christianity. The distant Jewish ancestors were the Hebrews, a branch of the ancient Semitic. At the end of the 13th century BC, he moved to Palestine from Egypt and established the Kingdom of Hebrew and the Kingdom of Israel. In 722 and 586 BC, the two kingdoms were conquered by the Assyrians and then destroyed by the Babylonians. The Romans invaded in 63 BC, and most of the Jews were driven out of Palestine and went into exile in Europe and America. Palestine was occupied by the Arab Empire in the 7th century, and the Arabs have since become the overwhelming majority of the residents of the area. Palestine was annexed by the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. In 1922, the League of Nations passed the "Mandate Mandate" of the United Kingdom on Palestine, stipulating the establishment of a "House of the Jewish People" in Palestine. Later, Jews from all over the world emigrated to Palestine in large numbers. On November 29, 1947, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution to establish the Arab State and the Jewish State in Palestine. The State of Israel was formally established on May 14, 1948.

National flag: It is rectangular, the ratio of length to width is about 3:2. The flag ground is white with a blue band on top and bottom. The blue and white colors come from the color of the shawl used by Jews in prayer. In the center of the white flag is a blue six-pointed star. This is the star of King David of ancient Israel and symbolizes the power of the country.

Israel has a population of 7.15 million (in April 2007, including Jewish residents of the West Bank and East Jerusalem), of which 5.72 million are Jews, accounting for 80% (about 44% of the 13 million Jews in the world), There are 1.43 million Arabs, accounting for 20%, and a small number of Druze and Bedouins. The natural population growth rate is 1.7%, and the population density is 294 people per square kilometer. Both Hebrew and Arabic are official languages, and English is commonly used. Most of the residents believe in Judaism, while the rest believe in Islam, Christianity and other religions.

For more than 50 years, Israel, with its poor land and shortage of resources, has persisted in taking the road of a strong country with science and technology, paying attention to education and personnel training, so that the economy can develop rapidly. In 1999, the per capita GDP reached 1. $60,000. The development of Israel's high-tech industries has attracted worldwide attention, especially with advanced technologies and advantages in electronics, communications, computer software, medical equipment, biotechnology engineering, agriculture, and aviation. Israel is located on the edge of the desert zone and lacks water resources. The severe water shortage has led Israel to form a unique drip irrigation water-saving technology in agriculture, making full use of existing water resources and turning a large desert into an oasis. Farmers with less than 5% of the total population not only feed the people, but also export large quantities of high-quality fruits, vegetables, flowers and cotton.

The Temple Mount is the most important holy place for Jews. Solomon, the son of King David of Judea in the 1st millennium BC, took 7 years and spent 200,000 people on a hill in Jerusalem, which later became famous A magnificent temple was built on the Temple Hill (also known as the Temple Mount) as a place to worship the Jewish god Lord Jehovah. This is the famous first temple in Jerusalem. In 586 BC, the Babylonian army captured Jerusalem, and the first temple was destroyed. Later, the Jews rebuilt the temple twice, but it was destroyed twice during the Roman occupation. The famous Basilica protecting the Most Holy Place was rebuilt on the ruins of the First Temple built by Herod I the Great in 37 BC on Solomon. The Temple of Herod was destroyed by the Titus Legion of Ancient Rome in AD 70. After that, Jews built a 52-meter-long and 19-meter-high wall on the ruins of the original Jewish temple with stones from the original temple. "West Wall". The Jews are called the "Wailing Wall" and become the most important worship object of Judaism today.

Jerusalem: Jerusalem is located on the four hills of the Judean Mountains in central Palestine. It is a world-famous historical city with a history of more than 5,000 years. Surrounded by mountains, it covers an area of ​​158 square kilometers and consists of the old city in the east and the new city in the west. At an altitude of 835 meters and 634,000 (2000), it is the largest city in Israel.

The Old City of Jerusalem is a religious holy city and the birthplace of the three major religions of Judaism, Islam and Christianity. All three religions regard Jerusalem as their holy place. Religion and tradition, history and theology, as well as sacred places and houses of prayer, make Jerusalem a holy city revered by Jews, Christians and Muslims.

The location of Jerusalem was first called "Jebus" because a long time ago, a tribe of Arab Canaanites named "Jebus" migrated from the Arabian Peninsula to settle here and build villages. Build a castle and name this place after the tribe. Later, the Canaanites built a city here and named it "Yuro Salim". Around one thousand years BC, David, the founder of the Jewish Kingdom, conquered this place and used it as the capital of the Jewish Kingdom. He continued to use the name "Yuro Salim". To make it Hebrew, it was called " Euro Salam". Chinese translates this as "Jerusalem", meaning "City of Peace". The Arabs call the city "Gourdes", or "Holy City".

Jerusalem has long been a city where Palestinians and Israelis live together. According to legend, in the 10th century BC, David's son Solomon succeeded to the throne and built a Jewish temple on Mount Zion in Jerusalem. It was the center of ancient Jews' religious and political activities, so Judaism took Jerusalem as a holy place. Later, a city wall was built on the ruins of the temple, called the "wailing wall" by the Jews, and it has become the most important worship object of Judaism today.

Since its establishment, the Old City of Jerusalem has been rebuilt and restored 18 times. In 1049 BC, it was the old city of the ancient kingdom of Israel under the rule of King David. In 586 BC, King Nebuchadnezzar II of New Babylon (now Iraq) captured the city and razed it to the ground. In 532 BC, it was invaded and occupied by the King of Persia. After the 4th century BC, Jerusalem was successively attached to the kingdoms of Macedonia, Ptolemy, and Seleucid. When Rome captured Jerusalem in 63 BC, they expelled the Jews from the city. The Roman tyranny against the Jews in Palestine caused four large-scale uprisings. The Romans carried out a bloody suppression, massacred more than one million Jews, and a large number of Jews were looted to Europe and reduced to slavery. The Jews who survived the catastrophe fled one after another, mainly to the present-day Britain, France, Italy, Germany and other regions, and later in large numbers to Russia, Eastern Europe, North America, etc., and from then on began the tragic history of Jewish exile. In 636 AD, the Arabs defeated the Romans. Since then, Jerusalem has long been under Muslim rule.

At the end of the 11th century, the Pope of Rome and European monarchs launched many crusades in the name of "Recovering the Holy City". In 1099, the Crusaders captured Jerusalem and then established the "Kingdom of Jerusalem." Lasted for nearly a century. In 1187, the Arab Sultan Saladin defeated the Crusaders in the battle of Hedian in northern Palestine and regained Jerusalem. From 1517 to before World War I, Jerusalem was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.

Near the town of Bethlehem, 17 kilometers south of Jerusalem, there is a cave called Mahed. It is said that Jesus was born in this cave, and Mahed Church is now built there. Jesus studied in Jerusalem when he was young, and then preached here, calling himself Christ (ie Savior), and was later crucified by the Jewish authorities on a cross outside the city and buried there. Legend has it that Jesus rose from the tomb three days after his death and ascended to heaven 40 days later. In 335 AD, the Queen Mother Hirana, mother of the ancient Roman emperor Constantine I, visited Jerusalem and built a Church of the Resurrection on the cemetery of Jesus, also known as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Therefore, Christianity regards Jerusalem as a holy place.

At the beginning of the 7th century, the prophet of Islam Muhammad preached in the Arabian Peninsula and was opposed by the local nobles in Mecca. One night, he was awakened from a dream and rode a silver-gray horse with a woman's head sent by an angel. From Mecca to Jerusalem, he stepped on a holy stone and flew up to the nine heavens. After receiving inspiration from heaven, he returned to Mecca that night. This is the famous "Night Walk and Dangxiao" in Islam, and it is one of the important teachings of Muslims. Because of this night travel myth, Jerusalem has become the third holiest place in Islam after Mecca and Medina.

It is precisely because Jerusalem is one of the three holy places of religion. In order to compete for the holy place, there have been so many cruel battles here since ancient times. Jerusalem has been razed to the ground 18 times, but it has been revived each time. The fundamental reason is that it is a world-recognized religious holy site. Some people say that Jerusalem is a beautiful city rarely seen in the world that has been destroyed repeatedly but highly respected. Before 1860, Jerusalem had a city wall, and the city was divided into 4 residential areas: Jewish, Muslim, Armenian, and Christian. At that time, Jews, who already made up the majority of the city’s population, began to build new residential areas outside the walls, forming the core of modern Jerusalem. From a small township to a prosperous metropolis, many new residential areas are formed, and each residential area reflects the characteristics of a specific settlement group there.

The New City of Jerusalem is located in the west. It was gradually established after the 19th century. It is twice the size of the Old City. It is mainly home to scientific and cultural institutions. There are modern buildings on both sides of the street, among the row upon row of tall buildings, comfortable and elegant hotel villas, and large shopping malls with crowds, dotted with beautiful parks. The old city is located in the east, surrounded by a high wall. Some famous religious sites are in the old city. For example, the sacred stone that Muhammad stepped on when he ascended to the sky at night was located on the same place as the Mecca Kerr day house. The Helai Mosque, the Al-Aqsa Mosque, the third largest mosque in the world after the Holy Mosque of Mecca and the Prophet’s Temple in Medina, etc., all the names, events and related events mentioned in the "Old Testament" and "New Testament" Locally, there are corresponding churches and temples in the city. Jerusalem is also one of the most important tourist cities in the world.

Jerusalem is both ancient and modern. It is a diverse city. Its inhabitants represent the integration of multiple cultures and ethnic groups, with both strict adherence to canon and secular lifestyle. The city not only preserves the past, but also builds for the future. It has both carefully restored historical sites, carefully beautified green spaces, modern business districts, industrial parks, and expanding suburbs, showing its continuity and vitality.